Functions of Kidney
Regulate your body water
and other chemicals in your blood such
as sodium, potassium, phosphorus and calcium
Remove drugs and toxins
introduced into your body
Release hormones into your blood
to help your body:
regulate blood pressure
make red blood cells
promote strong bones.
- Regulation of blood plasma
The kidneys regulate the blood plasma volume and water content of
the body. In other words, if you drink large quantities of water,
the kidneys respond by eliminating large quantities of a dilute (or
weak) urine. If you have lost much water through excessive sweating
or vomiting or diarrhea, the kidneys respond by eliminating small
quantities of a concentrated or strong urine.
- Regulating Alkaline ratio of blood
The kidneys regulate the acid-base (alkaline) ratio of the blood.
The kidneys keep the slight alkalinity of the blood by eliminating a
more or less alkaline or acid urine, depending upon the state of
blood as it reaches the kidneys. When a person lives on a mixed
diet, the urine will be acid because the end products of protein
metabolism are acid forming. Naturally, the more protein in the
diet, the more acid the urine. On the other hand, the urine of a
person on a vegetarian diet will be slightly alkaline.
Regulating Blood Pressure
In addition to all this, the kidneys secrete a substance known as
rennin. This substance plays a part in renal hypertension, that is,
in maintaining a high blood pressure in kidneys which is necessary
for the filtration process, rennin also seems to have something to
do with regulating normal blood pressure through the exact role it
plays is still not completely understood. That is why in cases of
hypertension, attention is usually turned to the kidneys, for high
blood pressure is usually a sign of kidney disorder.
Nature has intricately
formed the kidney so that it can perform all these functions
simultaneously. Its structural or functional unit is the
of which there
are about one million in each kidney. Normally, an adult kidney is 4 ½ x
2 ¼ x 1 ¼ inches in dimension and weighs a little over 6 ¼ ounces. From
these figures you can readily see that each nephron must be of an
infinitesimal size. Nonetheless, despite its minute size, each nephron
is a complete filtering plant.
The nephron is surrounded
by connective tissue and receives an abundant supply of food. Each one
consists of a glomerulus and a renal tube. In the glomerulus, which is
formed by a bundle of capillaries winding around each other, a fluid is
formed, by a process of filtration, which is very similar to the blood
plasma except that it does not contain the protein and other large
molecules which cannot pass, because of size, through the glomerular
membranes. Along the renal tubes, water, glucose, chloride, phosphates,
etc. are reabsorbed from the blood. The cells of the renal tubes then
excrete certain of these substances into the tubular fluid. This makes
its way into the calyces or cup like divisions of the kidney pelvis and
from there down the ureter into the bladder where it accumulates until
such time as where it accumulates until such time as the need to urinate
A kidney stone is a hard mineral and crystalline material formed
within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of
blood in the urine and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or
groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi. One in every 20
people develops a kidney stone at some point in their life. The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis or
occurrence depends on edible consumed in Day-to-Day life. Mainly kidney
stones are caused due to elements in Food and type of Water consumed.
Also geographically the stone formation malady may vary for countries
differently. Apart from Kidneys stones, the process of stone formation
can take place in other organs like Gall-Bladder, Tonsils or Urinary
Kidney Stones are
found primarily in three forms: Phosphates, Calcium Oxalate and Urates.
Type of Kidney stones can be determined by Type of hardness of stones.
Urates are Hardest of all, Calcium Oxalates are also harder and
Phosphates are soluble nature. Intensity, seriousness and damage depend
on Type and Size of stone. Larger and Harder the stone causes greater
damage to Kidneys. It is always recommended by doctors to drink around
10-12 glasses of water on daily basis to flush out kidneys and remain
Kidney stonescan be
caused due to less intake of fluids, consuming calcium based food
products, higher intake of tomato, rice, Potato, etc and consuming
Non-Vegetarian food like fish and meat and liquor. In most of cases it
is found that kidney stones occurrences are hereditary as well.
Normally in such
condition patient shows symptoms of Nausea and vomiting, pain can be
felt in loins and testicles, pain may subside if passage of urine is
free as the same indicates passage of stone through urinal. In some
cases blood may pass as stone gets out of kidneys.
As corrective measures
there is no specific medicine to dissolve stone, however medication can
be suggested to lesser pain and restore normal urinary flow thereby
reducing future possibility of major kidney problem. Also in case of
bigger stones the same is recommended to be surgically recommended as
the bigger stone has high potential to further damage kidneys.
Role of Calcium
Approximately 85% of stones are composed predominantly of calcium compounds. The most common cause of calcium stone production is excess calcium in the urine. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet and makes up important parts of the body, such as bones and muscles. Calcium that is not used by the bones and muscles goes to the kidneys. Excess calcium present in the urine leads to the formation of calcium stones. this calcium has a tendency to unite with the carbonate, phosphate and oxalate present in the urine and to form the stones. they are sharp or smooth stones with dark brown color.
Types of kidney stones:
There are two types of Calcium stones - Calcium phoshate stones and Calcium Oxalate stones. Calcium phosphate stones are common and dissolve in urine acidified by Vitamin C whereas the Oxalate stones do not dissolve in acid urine. Calcium stones are commonly found in people having problems in small intestine. kidney disorders, excess Vitamin D etc.
* swiss chard
* wheat germ
* soybean crackers
* black Indian tea
* sweet potatoes
Uric Acid Stone
This type of stones is formed when there is excess uric acid in the urine. Digestion of meat protein produces uric acid. People who receive Chemotherapy treatment for curing cancer have more concentration of uric acid in urine than normal people and are more prone to uric stone formation in their kidneys. People of hot and dry places who are frequently dehydrated are vulnerable to Uric acid stones. This is the only type of stone that can be dissolved just with medication. Alkalinizing medicines like potassium citrate and sodium bicarbonate can allow uric acid stones to dissolve. If the acid level in the urine is high, the uric acid may not dissolve and uric acid stones will form. Uric acid stones are light brown in color.
Struvite Stones occurs mainly due to urinary tract infections and is thus more common in women. It is formed from the surplus ammonia and magnesium in the urine. Any conditions that cause urinary tract infection with bacteria have the ability to produce ammonia. Since bladder may have some urine stagnant, the possibility of bacteria growing is more. Struvite stones can grow to be very large and harm the kidneys more than other stones.
Struvite stone does not really show any symptoms like other stones. However, recurrent urinary tract infection may be a symptom of Struvite stone.
Cystine stones are very rare. They are caused by cystinuria, a genetic kidney disease. These stones are the results of urine surpluses with cystine. This problem occurs mainly in children and young adults. A person having a hereditary disease of cystinuria has chances for this stone. Cystine is an amino acid in protein that normal kidneys can reabsorb when filtered in the urine and then transfer it to the blood but in cystinuria, the kidney fails to reabsorb the cystine amino acid from the urine. Therefore, cystine dissolves in the urine and form crystals. It is crystalline in nature and is yellow in color. It develops at an early age. Cystine stones that are difficult to treat and requires life-long therapy.
These are however, rare kidney stones types. Certain drugs taken to cure some other disease may form crystals and then such crystals will grow as stones. Persons who are undergoing treatment for HIV infection using triamterene and protease inhibitor indinavir are susceptible to drug stone formation.
The first symptom is extreme pain, which begins suddenly when a stone moves in the urinary tract and blocks the flow of urine. When the tubular structure is getting blocked, pains are generated in waves and body tries to unblock the barrier (stone, in this case). These pain waves are called as colic. The pain is powerful and comes on rapidly.
The pain usually starts in your back or your side just below the edge of your ribs.
As the stone moves down the ureter toward your bladder, the pain may radiate to your groin. If the stone stops moving, the pain may stop too . pain may last for minutes or hours, followed by periods of relief . If a stone stays inside one of your kidneys, it usually doesn't cause a problem unless it becomes so large it blocks the flow of urine, pain continues as the muscles in the wall of the narrow ureter try to squeeze the stone into the bladder. As the stone moves and the body tries to push it out, blood may appear in the urine, making the urine pink. As the stone moves down the ureter, closer to the bladder, a person may feel the need to urinate more often or feel a burning sensation during urination. Hence it is best to treat them when they are small & can be excreted through the urine.
Other symptom includes:
*Blocked flow of urine.
*Nausea and vomiting
*Fever, chills and weakness
*Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
Read full at Kidney Stone
Most people have formed their conception of kidney
disease from the familiar advertisement which pictures the agonized man
or woman, stooped and sadly feeling of their back. Use so and so’s
Kidney Pills! At the first twinge of backache, John Doe visions kidneys
have become inseparably associated in his mind, Oft repeated statistics
tell of the danger of kidney disease and its frightful death rate. It is
a dreadful disease.
The first extensive study of renal disease was made by a Dr. Bright.
The symptoms in the picture, he described, have since been called
Bright’s disease. It is a familiar term. The number of sufferers seems
to grow as time goes on, the death rate grows.The kidneys are the
filters of the blood, every drop of blood in the body passes through
them at regular intervals. The blood is scoured and washed as it passes
thru the kidneys. All foreign products are cleaned out and all excesses
of normal blood are formed into urine and removed from the body by way
of the bladder. It is normal to have a certain amount of sugar in the
If we eat a pound of candy, the blood may
temporarily become overloaded with sugar. The blood sugar may go up to
0.3% or higher. A normal kidney soon reduces this excess, the blood
sugar content goes back to normal.
Long ago physicians hit upon the
plan of examining urine. By analyzing this excretion, they can tell the
makeup of the blood, they can judge and diagnose body health. It follows
that the condition of a person’s blood will be the criterion as to their
renal health. The welfare of the kidneys is directly dependent upon the
composition of the blood.
If we were to continually eat an excess of sugar,
and the blood was continually overloaded, the kidneys would eventually
breakdown from overwork. The more wastes the blood has, the harder the
kidneys have to work.
A very careful investigator conducted a series of
experiments at the University of Michigan with the object of studying
kidney disease. Animals and human beings were fed excess of certain
foods. Meat, for example, a certain portion of digested mean is called
urea. A small amount of this chemical is normal in blood. The kidneys
have to work so hard that they are hurt, they become inflamed.
Inflammation of kidneys is Bright’s disease.
Eating an excess of any one class
of foods, such as starches, proteins or fats, may eventually inflame the
kidneys, because of overloading the blood stream, producing too much
work. The mistake people make is not the eating of too much food as
total, but the eating of too much of one kind. Some people live almost
exclusively on meats and protein foods, others live entirely in starchy
foods like bread, potatoes, macaroni, and cereals. In either case, they
are violating a natural law, that demands of us to eat balanced
proportions of food stuff. Which explains why the first thing a doctor
does when he finds kidney disease is to put on a diet.
Common table salt is a normal constituent of blood.
People who eat too much salt, may accumulate an excess of it. The
kidneys have to eliminate it. If they are unable to, nature tries to
dilute the salt in the blood by accumulating water in the body tissues.
This causes the far-famed dropsy. Swelling of the eyelids, ankles or
abdomen, in kidney disease, is only a compensatory effort on nature’s
part to dilute overloaded blood.
A physician who achieved fame as a kidney
specialist, reasoned in this simple way, viz: the symptoms of kidney
disease, particularly dropsy or swelling, are due to accumulation of the
blood of waste products and poisons which the kidney cannot throw off.
He proposed to drain off some of the patient’s blood and inject sterile
water into veins, to dilute the poisons and wastes. His reasoning was
correct, his results remarkable. Such treatment is in no more sense a
cure, but it demonstrates vividly how a proper understanding of the body
may be turned to advantage. It is a universal practice nowadays to cut
table salt from diet of a person with kidney disease. For easily
understood reasons. Sometimes there is almost a magical relief
from dropsy by this simple procedure.
Not only what we eat, but anything, which loads
the blood with abnormal or waste materials, will cause inflammation of
kidneys. Thus kidney disease occurs in the expectant mother who is
unable to care for extra waste products thrown into her body by
pregnancy. It occurs as a complication of measles, influenza and any and
all of the acute diseases. The kidneys are put to such strain taking
care of not only the average normal body requirements, but the
tremendous load and burden imposed by a disease.
Breakdown of Kidney Function
Chronic constipation, may flood the blood with
wastes and poisons. The kidneys have not only their work to do, but the
intestines as well. They give way, they inflame. The presence of pus in
the body, is one of the surest road to kidney disease. Chronic
tonsillitis, chronic sinus trouble, chronic infection of reproductive
organs, may throw so much poison into the blood that the kidneys break
down. There may be even a direct infection of kidneys from pus in some
more remote spot in the body.
The treatment of kidney disease lies in cleaning
the body of any pus, or excess waste products. Constipation must be
contracted, its effects must overcome. The diet should be carefully
supervised. The proportions of food, must be correct, freak diets are
not necessary. Salt, tea, coffee, alcohol or anything which requires
unusual activity of kidneys must be discontinued. Cure or alleviation
comes about thru resting the kidneys. Overwork was the cause of their
becoming inflamed. By resting they may recoup and heal.
The kidneys are supported by pads of fat. People
who are excessively thin may fail to support the kidneys properly. The
kidneys prolapse or drop. Fallen kidneys produce aggravating symptoms.
In the aged or those suffering from hardened arteries, the blood supply
shrinks and hardens. The blood vessels within the kidney harden. Life is
not possible without kidney action.
factors to ailing Kidneys
Because the skin has similar work to do, anything
that helps the skin also helps the kidneys. Bathing is an important
point, and various kinds of baths should be freely taken. This will keep
the skin active, which will lighten the work of kidneys considerably.
Begin with the common sweat bath and follow the next time with Russian,
Turkish or electric baths. Such baths as cold sponge friction, Epsom
salt, and many other baths can be taken in home and are very beneficial.
A little more knowledge about baths will be very beneficial to us. We
all know how to take a tub bath, but there are many simple baths which
are different and helpful, as they have different applications and
We should study on this subject, the subject of
hydrotherapy, which is a natural way of helth building, and has been
used for ages. (Study the works of Father Kneipp, Bliz, Just, Kuhne,
Ehret, Platen, Lust and other Naturopathic authorities.)
Activity helps the kidneys.
It makes the
blood circulate. Don’t loaf. Work is good for you. Don’t loaf. Work is
good for you. Do lots of it, it hurts no one. Walking and horseback
riding are excellent exercise. Live in the open as much as possible.
Sleep on the porch whenever you have a chance to do so. Breathe deeply,
use forced breathing frequently. Go through your exercises regularly,
and do not forget the “bell-ringing” exercises fot the kidneys. And try
to forget your trouble and your worries.
Fresh air cleans the blood
To keep the
blood clean is one of the kidneys jobs. Whatever cleans the blood helps
the kidneys jobs. Lower windows from the top and raise them from the
bottom, and again sleep on the porch if possible. When kidney troubles
are young, when they are in inflammatory state, then hot and cold packs
should be used on the spine over the kidneys. If you combine this with a
good diet, and with your exercises you will feel a remarkable
improvement in a short time.
A rational diet
A rational diet or the proper combinations
of proper foods, is the best and surest method for ridding oneself from
kidney ailments. Foods rich in proteins and starch are not good for
kidney ailments. The body makes no provision for storing proteins as it
does for fats, and all excess protein must be eliminated through the
kidneys. As for the ordinary medical treatment, how can such poisons as
arsenic, strychnine, bromides, nitroglycerine, coal tar products, and
the various opiates, help the patient? Common sense thinking should show
at once the grave danger that arises from introduced those poisons into
the system that is already overloaded with poisons of its own